Date Palm Molecular Markers Database:        In order to provide useful genomic information for date palm, we have established a database, the Date Palm Molecular Markers Database (

        This database includes information on more than 3,611,400 DNA markers (e.g., SSR, SSR-SNPs and SNP markers), genetic linkage maps, KEGG maps, DNA-barcode and all previously published date palm articles in PubMed-indexed journals since 1976 to 2017.

      Keyword searches for markers, sequence used for marker development and other information are also available through this database. Date Palm Molecular Markers Database will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in date palm.

Simple Sequence Repeats

        Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have become widely used as molecular markers in plant genetic studies due to their abundance, co-dominant inheritance, extensive genomic coverage, high allelic variation at each locus and simplicity to analyze using conventional PCR amplification. SSRs are also have extensively been exploited as genetic markers for diverse applications including variety identiļ¬cation, genetic diversity, construction of genetic linkage maps, association mapping, and marker-assisted selection.

Molecular Markers Database Overview

        The list of integrated date palm SSRs and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were collected from earlier studies (Mokhtar et al., 2016, Al-Dous et al., 2011) and stored in relational database tables of MySQL database. The information of SSR markers was stored in four sub-databases, while, SNP markers was stored in one sub-database. Each SSR or SNP marker was given a unique identifier called Primer-ID. The sub-databases are as follows:

Date Palm Molecular Markers Sub-Databases
Genic Simple Sequence Repeat Sub-Database

Genic Simple Sequence Repeat (Genic-SSRs) sub-database: includes 9,649 Genic-SSR markers.

Genic SSR-SNPs Sub-Database

Genic SSR-SNPs (SNPs that are located within the SSR flanking regions) sub-database: includes 21731 Genic SSR-SNPs markers.

Intergenic SSR-SNPs Sub-Database

Intergenic SSR-SNPs (SNPs that are located within the SSR flanking regions) sub-database: includes 57251 Intergenic SSR-SNPs markers.

SNPs Markers Database Sub-Database

SNPs Markers sub-database: includes 3,000,000 SNPs markers.

R-Genes SSR markers Sub-Database

Here we integrated 42 SSR primers located within 16 different disease resistance genes, previously published by (Mokhtar et al., 2016).

Date Palm DNA Barcoding Sub-Database

Here we retrieved all date palm barcodes sequence excited at NCBI database (138 date palm cultivars characterized by use rbcL and matK genes).

Functional map by KEGG pathway analyses

        The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database is a useful tool for understanding genes biological functions and their molecular interactions. We integrated in this sub-database, our previous published 896 SSR primers that mapped onto 111 KEGG pathway, in order to make this data publicly available for scientists interested in functional map analysis in date palm.

Functional Map Sub-Database
Date palm genetic linkage maps

        Date palm genetic linkage maps are important as a tool can be used in linkage analysis, association studies, and the building of physical maps. The first date palm genetic linkage maps, which were constructed by (Mathew et al., 2014) with the ~4000 DNA markers spanning a total of 1293 cM are also registered and integrated in our database. The information provided on the genetic linkage maps includes the mapped positions of the various markers and the reference sequence for each marker.

Genetic Linkage Maps Sub-Database

How to cite: Date Palm Molecular Markers Database:     

Morad M. Mokhtar, Sami S. Adawy, Salah El-Din S. El-Assal and Ebtissam H. A. Hussein.  Genic and intergenic SSR database generation, SNPs determination and pathway annotations, in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). PLoS ONE. 2016; 11(7): e0159268. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159268   link

Contact: Morad M. Mokhtar:   link